As an allotrope of carbon (other allotropes include diamond and graphite), graphene is a flat, single-layer structure composed of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons. It readily reacts with other metals, changing its properties, as a result. As it is one-atom thick, its structure is basically considered two-dimensional. Due to instability of such a layer, more stable derivative forms of graphene, such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been more widely used in scientific research. In the latter form, it has the properties of a nanoparticle.

Graphene oxide is a single layer of graphite oxide which, similarly to graphene, is composed of hexagonal carbon rings with honeycomb structure. Unlike graphene, however, GO has a large number of structural defects and oxygen functional groups, resulting from graphite oxidation, which allow its properties for the purposes of specific applications. The single layer of GO is a two-dimensional structure, while gels formed by several layers of GO are three-dimensional structures.

The research conducted in the Military University of Technology Biomedical Engineering Centre Cluster have shown that, among its other characteristics, graphene oxide has antibacterial properties. The results of this research have been confirmed in other research centres inside and outside of Poland.

Graphene has a number of properties, namely conductivity, transparency, mechanical durability and elasticity, two-dimensional structure and unique electrical properties, not found in this combination in any other material.

The range of the potential applications of graphene include

The research on graphene is a great stimulus for the development of new technological solutions in various areas of life and economy, as graphene may replace current materials for many applications.

The research on the medical applications of graphene and its derivates have shown that graphene might also be capable of carrying particles, for instance, transporting medication.